(says Robert Mitchell)
Democracy cannot be imagined without organization...and the parties are responsible for that organization
The importance of political parties is due to the protection of public freedoms, as they provide opportunities for the establishment of opposition, and the opposition is what prevents the authority from any bombing of rights and freedoms.
Define a political party
According to Article 2 of the Political Parties Law No. 40 of 1977
A political party means every organized group that is established in accordance with the provisions of this law and is based on common principles and objectives and operates by political and democratic means to achieve specific programs related to the political, economic and social affairs of the state through participation in the responsibilities of governance.
But we see that the definition of the party is simple:
A political party is a group of individuals who unite around principles, ideas and goals.
Partisan activity that is constitutionally prohibited
According to Article 5 of the Constitution, which states: “The political system in the Arab Republic of Egypt is based on the multiplicity of parties, within the framework of the basic constituents and principles of Egyptian society stipulated in the Constitution. The law regulates political parties.
Citizens have the right to form political parties, in accordance with the law, and it is not permissible to engage in any political activity or establish political parties on any reference or religious basis, or based on discrimination based on gender or origin.
As well as Article 55, which stipulates that “Citizens have the right to form associations in the manner set forth in the law, and it is prohibited to establish associations whose activities are hostile to society’s order, secret, or of a military nature.”
We find that the constitution has prohibited the establishment of parties on religious grounds, according to the latest constitutional amendment on 3/26/2007, or having military activity, secret activity, or activity hostile to the system of society.
And according to Article 4, the fourth paragraph of the Political Parties Law No. 4 of 1977, as amended by Law No. 177 of 2005
The party's failure to base its principles, programs, conduct its activities, or choose its leadership or members on religious, class, sectarian, factional, or geographical grounds, or to exploit religious feelings, or to discriminate on the grounds of gender, origin, or creed.
Before we talk about the restrictions of partisan work in Egypt according to the latest amendment to Law No. 40 of 1977, we see that it is necessary to shed light on the emergence and development of political parties in Egypt, and to review through them the experiences of partisan pluralism since 1907.
Then, we talk about the restrictions on partisan work in light of the latest amendment to the Political Parties Law by Law No. 177 of 2005.