The Syrian Arab Republic has recently returned to the Arab League. However, it should be noted that Syria is still a fragile state that is unable to recover due to the gross human rights violations committed by all parties, especially the armed militias in western and northeastern Syria. This situation is even exacerbated by Militias’ control of parts of the territory, acting as de facto authorities. The imposition of unilateral coercive measures by the USA and the European Union still plays a decisive role in the deterioration of the human rights situation in Syria, especially the deterioration of economic and social rights.
The conflict has disrupted supply and trade chains, raised levels of inflation and unemployment, severely damaged the health and well-being of citizens, caused widespread destruction to the country's industries and infrastructure, including hospitals, schools, as well as water and sanitation systems. Besides, it has undermined economic growth, the political system, and human rights in Syria, and caused mass displacement of millions of people from their homes to seek refuge in neighboring countries or within Syria itself, which created one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world and led to huge losses in terms of development.
The various measures taken at the international level have exacerbated the difficulties and undermined development in Syria instead of driving improvements in the field of development in all its aspects. Syria’s membership suspension from the League of Arab States (LAS), the imposition of sanctions and unilateral coercive measures by western countries on Syria, and the prevention of aid, support, and international relief to the Syrian government, exacerbated the losses of development in Syria and created serious repercussions on all aspects of development in Syria, which necessarily affected the well-being and quality of life of the citizens in Syria.
In light of the above, this study seeks to answer the research’s main question, which is: What is the Impact of the Conflict on Development in Syria? To answer this question, the study examines the economic, political and social impacts of the Syrian conflict, including the destruction of infrastructure and industries, disruption of supply and trade; the role of external actors in exacerbating or mitigating damage; as well as the challenges and opportunities for reconstruction and recovery.