Lebanon has been suffering for more than a year under the weight of a stifling financial and economic crisis, the worst in its history, accompanied by complete political paralysis that impedes the formation of a new government, after the country witnessed the resignation of two governments in a period not exceeding ten months, which limits the ability of the Authority to provide a minimum In the fall of 2019, the resentment of the Lebanese who took to the streets in protest against the performance of the political class accused of corruption reached its climax following the explosion of the Beirut port on August 4, and the extent of the loss of life and destruction prompted Hassan Diab's government to resign to absorb the anger of the street. . The explosion dealt a fatal blow to the economy after months of imposing tight banking restrictions, the start of the exchange rate collapse and Lebanon's failure to pay its foreign debt. It also left a large multi-dimensional humanitarian problem, and the Corona pandemic deepened the size of other crises and placed additional heavy burdens on the ability of state agencies to cope with them. As the features of the collapse were exacerbated by the imposition of strict closures in stages to confront the Corona virus, which also limited the pace of protests and pushed institutions to close their doors. The Lebanese found themselves faced with an insane increase in the prices of goods and services, while their purchasing power has declined and continues to decline.
This crisis is exacerbated by the sectarian and confessional division that ensued, and the consequent external links and loyalties, based on sectarian foundations or political interests of this or that group, at the expense of the general interest of all the Lebanese people. In this climate, Lebanon continues to live in a fragile internal situation, whether under the threat of a state of dual power between the official ones represented by the constitutional state institutions - which is witnessing divisions as a result of which no new government has been formed yet - and the informal represented by Hezbollah's military force, which exacerbates the The inability of the security and judicial agencies to carry out their duties, or due to the impact of external developments and regional accounts on the internal situation.
These pressing conditions were coupled with old challenges, such as the Israeli occupation of parts of southern Lebanon, its continued violation of Lebanese sovereignty, the ongoing wars in the neighborhood and the terrorist threat. Added to it are the Syrian displacement and Palestinian refugee crises, which doubles the responsibility entrusted to the Lebanese government to preserve the gains and make the desired progress in promoting human rights, especially through a radical reform process based on fighting corruption and meeting the aspirations of the Lebanese people.
The Lebanese human rights file was subject to evaluation and review within the framework of the universal periodic review process before the United Nations Human Rights Council, which took place on January 18, 2021, when 47 countries issued a set of recommendations to improve human rights protection measures in Lebanon, and then; The Lebanese government should pay attention to these recommendations, make a much greater effort to fulfill, respect and protect human rights, and put an end to the impunity behind the massive decline in basic economic, social, and civil rights.
Since the last review at the Human Rights Council in 2015, Lebanon has made little progress on the recommendations it accepted, failing to conduct adequate investigations into torture allegations, and restricting freedom of expression and peaceful assembly in the context of the protests. It has also failed to provide adequate working conditions for migrant workers, and to protect refugee rights - particularly from refoulement. Lebanon has also failed to end discrimination against women. Any positive steps taken - such as the formation of the National Committee for the Prevention of Torture or the National Authority for Missing and Forcibly Disappeared Persons - have been largely symbolic so far. As the authorities failed to empower and activate these two bodies.
Therefore, Maat Foundation for Peace, Development and Human Rights calls on the Lebanese authorities to accept these recommendations and commit to making the necessary changes to turn the page on decades of violations of people's social, civil and economic rights. Accountability must replace impunity, and Lebanon must be held accountable for the promises it has made.” The Foundation also calls on future Lebanese governments to give priority to these recommendations in the next four years, until the time for the next review of Lebanon.
Based on its interest in the human rights file in Lebanon, Maat presents this report to analyze the most prominent political and economic crises on the Lebanese scene and how they affected the human rights situation in Lebanon.